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wholesale halloween costumes

بازدید : 0 سه شنبه 23 آبان 1396 زمان : 13:37

Katherine L. wholesale halloween costumes Milkman - Special To The Washington PostHalloween is in the air, and so is the Hollywood tradition of horror films screening in theaters across the county. This annual ritual prompts another: a debate over whether violent scenes onscreen inspire real-life violence offscreen. The debate is usually between those who consider such films dangerous - and indeed, survey studies by psychologists suggest copycat violence is possible - and those who hold they're "harmless."But what if, when it comes to preventing real-life violence, horror films are actually helpful?

That's what economists Halloween Costumes Outlet Gordon Dahl and Stephano Della Vigna found when they analyzed the impact of different blockbuster movies released in the United States over a decade. According to their analysis, for every million people who view a violent film on a given day, violent crime decreases across the nation by 1.2 percent.

To put this in perspective, this year's Halloween blockbuster "Happy Death Day" pulled almost 4 million people during its opening weekend. Put in other terms, the researchers estimate that, on a weekend when an average number of viewers go see violent movies, the films deter nearly 1,000 assaults.

How jdfhggfhk is this possible?

According to Dahl and Della Vigna, people who might otherwise commit crimes are drawn into movie theaters when a violent film is released and so aren't available to commit assaults. In addition, the economists found violent film attendance led to particularly large decreases in assaults involving alcohol and drugs and had a larger deterrent effect for potential offenders just above the legal drinking age. This suggests that violent films prevent crime in part by reducing potential criminals' alcohol consumption (since few movie theaters allow alcohol on their premises). Importantly, though studying the long-term effects of violent films on crime wasn't possible in this context, the researchers found "no evidence of medium-run effects up to three weeks after initial exposure" to violent films.

These findings should ease fears about the impact of horror film releases on criminal behavior this Halloween (and every other day of the year), but they also offer a key insight about fighting crime. They suggest that creating attractive diversions for prospective criminals (like opportunities to watch violent films in theaters) can reduce violence.

A recent small study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa, by the nonprofit behavioral science consultancy ideas42 relied on this very same insight - that attractive diversions can be used to fight crime - to tremendous effect. In the study, 156 low-income, at-risk youth in Cape Town were randomly assigned to either a control group that went about their lives as usual or an intervention group that interacted with a computer program designed to help them find and plan fun, safe weekend activities. The program presented users with a series of different suggested weekend pastimes - like starting a pickup soccer game - until a suggestion was accepted. Then it helped a user plan where, when and with whom they would enjoy the suggested activity.

Survey data showed that youths randomly assigned to the intervention group were half as likely to participate in unsafe activities over the following weekend and half as likely to experience violence relative to the control group. The success of this small pilot program suggests huge opportunities for fighting crime by finding and suggesting appealing activities to prospective criminals that can "substitute" for getting into trouble.

A more general lesson from these studies is that an understanding of the psychology of violence - for instance, that it often results from unoccupied time on Friday and Saturday nights - can suggest useful tactics for reducing it. This can add to the arsenal of traditional approaches used for fighting crime like better or more policing and stiffer penalties.

A fascinating paper published earlier this year by a team of economists and psychologists offers yet another example of how understanding the psychology of crime can be useful to crime prevention efforts. This paper examines a program called Becoming a Man (BAM) - designed by the nonprofit group Youth Guidance - that was rolled out to a random sample of 4,804 students in very disadvantaged neighborhoods on the south and west sides of Chicago in 2009-2010 and 2013-2015.

BAM reduced total arrests among those randomly assigned to participate in the program by 28 percent to 35 percent and violent crime arrests by 45 percent to 50 percent. What's amazing about BAM is not just its effectiveness but the secret sauce that led to its success.

Like many programs designed for at-risk youth, BAM involved regular interactions with an adult mentor as well as in-school and after-school programming. However, an unusual aspect of BAM was the inclusion of curriculum content that taught participants about how to avoid mistakes that people commonly make when they think too quickly and act too impulsively, or as the researchers studying BAM put it, content "designed to reduce common judgment and decision-making problems related to automatic behavior and biased beliefs."

An evaluation of why BAM worked so well suggests it didn't change students' access to adult supporters, understanding of the returns to education, conscientiousness, social skills or emotional intelligence - instead, a key ingredient was that it helped teenagers (an age-group that tends to be particularly impulsive) learn to "slow down in high-stakes settings and re-examine their automatic assumptions." The researchers evaluating BAM developed a simulated provocation and looked at how BAM participants responded relative to students who hadn't gone through the program.

All students were given $10 and told another student "partner" had also been given $10. Their partner could take away some of the student's allocated $10. Via walkie talkie communication, each student learned their partner had decided to take $6 from them. (In reality there was no partner - only a researcher posing as one.) Students then had the opportunity to retaliate by taking money from their partner, but they knew this would be a multi-round interaction so retaliation could lead to a vicious cycle. The BAM students took 80 percent longer than others to respond to the provocation of having $6 taken from them, suggesting they had learned to slow down and think rather than merely reacting on first impulse. And reacting on impulse is a well-known cause of suboptimal decisions (like decisions to commit crimes). The team evaluating BAM found that in areas where BAM was most effective at crime prevention, this slowing down effect was largest, and they estimated that reduced automaticity accounted for "about a third of the total effect of BAM" on arrests.

Together, these findings from behavioral science are cause for celebration. They suggest new, highly effective ways to reduce crime and improve the lives of potential victims and criminals alike. This Halloween season, as you shudder in fear at the sight of spooky costumes or scenes from scary movies, remember that real horrors can be reduced not only with improved approaches to law enforcement - but also with a little insight into the psychology of crime.

بازدید : 0 سه شنبه 23 آبان 1396 زمان : 13:36

David MorrisonThe Missouri athletic department Sexy Clubwear operated at a surplus of $4 million during the 2012-13 fiscal year, according to the annual revenue and expense report the university submits to the NCAA.

The document, obtained through Wholesale Babydoll Lingerie an open-records request, reports that the athletic department generated $76.3 million of revenue from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, while spending $72.3 million.

Missouri operated at a deficit of $17.7 million for the 2011-12 fiscal year, spending $68.4 million and taking in $50.7 million in revenue. That deficit was caused by the Big 12 withholding Missouri's conference payout for the year as it was exiting the league for the Southeastern Conference, executive associate athletic director for operations Tim Hickman said.

MU made $1.8 million from conference, NCAA and tournament jdfhggfhk distributions in 2011-12, a number that ballooned to $21.1 million in 2012-13 thanks in large part to a $19.6 million infusion from the SEC.

Hickman said Missouri budgeted $14.1 million from the Big 12 that never materialized in 2011-12. He said the athletic department dug into its reserves to pay off some of the deficit, as well as using university funds.

"As we mature into the SEC and some of the new revenue streams we're anticipating there, we'll start a payment plan back to the institution for those funds," Hickman said.

MU expects a surplus of $2.8 million for the current fiscal year that ends June 30, according to a line-item budget obtained through an open-records request. The athletic department expects to take in $75.3 million and spend $72.5 million this year.

Hickman said the school is optimistic that revenue projection is on the low end. The school budgeted $20.4 million in conference/NCAA funds and $18.1 million in ticket sales, after reporting $22.5 million in ticket revenue for 2012-13.

"A strong year in football obviously helps a lot," Hickman said. "We go into our budgets trying to be conservative, as well. I anticipate, when it's all said and done, we'll beat that."

Hickman said the school is not currently budgeting any added revenue from the SEC Network ' which launches Aug. 14 ' for the 2014-15 fiscal year, as it's not clear how much the league's schools can expect from the new network and how soon they can expect it.

"Hopefully, we'll realize some of that" revenue, "but we're not going into" 2014-15 "counting on that," Hickman said.

Missouri attributed $31.9 million of revenue and $17.4 million in expenses to its football team in 2012-13, a difference of $14.5 million. The Tigers counted $12.6 million of revenue and $6.4 million in expenses from its men's basketball team, an excess of $6.2 million.

Missouri reported just less than $15 million in football ticket sales for 2012-13, an increase of 22 percent from the $12.3 million it reported the previous year. Men's basketball experienced a 6.2 percent increase in ticket revenue over the same period, from $4.9 million to $5.2 million.

Football and men's basketball combined to make up 89 percent of the ticket-sale revenue the Missouri athletic department reported in 2012-13.

بازدید : 0 سه شنبه 23 آبان 1396 زمان : 13:35

The Associated PressKANSAS CITY corsets wholesale - The Kansas City Chiefs and Denver Broncos appeared to be the class of the AFC West - and maybe the entire league - just a couple of weeks ago after going a combined 8-1 to start the season.

They're long gown dress a combined 0-4 since then.

The Chiefs were humbled by Pittsburgh before dropping a heartbreaker in Oakland, which snapped their 12-game division winning streak.

And the Broncos were embarrassed jdfhggfhk by the Giants before getting shut out last week by the Chargers - the first time they've been blanked in 25 years.

Now, what looked as if it would be a showdown for league supremacy Monday night at Arrowhead Stadium has turned into a game matching teams desperate to get back on track.

"Guys are frustrated. We know we can play better, and we want to play better," Broncos quarterback Trevor Siemian said. "Guys are a little frustrated. That's a good thing, I think. Me, specifically, I have to play better. I know that. I think this week, more than ever, is a really big week for us."

That's because the division race is still wide-open nearing the midway point. The Chiefs (5-2) are on top, while the Broncos (3-3) are just a half-game ahead of the Chargers and Raiders.

"Every week, the games just get bigger and bigger," Broncos cornerback Aqib Talib said. "Until you win the Super Bowl, games just get bigger and bigger. This is our next game, and it's a huge game for us."

It's just as huge for the Chiefs, whose five straight wins sent them soaring to the top of just about every NFL power ranking.

But their high-powered offense was effectively shut down by Pittsburgh, and their suspect defense was exposed in their last-second loss to the Raiders.

Still, veteran quarterback Alex Smith is playing at a high level. Running back Kareem Hunt has gone over 100 yards from scrimmage in an NFL-record seven straight games to begin his career. Tyreek Hill has not lost an ounce of the speed that has made him one of the league's most dynamic players.

Defensively, there's still Justin Houston and Marcus Peters making life miserable for QBs.

"A lot of fingers can be pointed and all of that, but the reality is you're 5-2 and a pretty good football team," Chiefs coach Andy Reid said. "There's always a little positive within the negative. It's hard right now, because you went 5-0 and then you have two losses and it seems like the whole world is falling apart. But in reality, that's not the case."

It might be if the Chiefs lost to the Broncos at Arrowhead Stadium.

As the bitter rivals prepare for a primetime matchup, here are some things to know:

JAMAAL IS BACK: The Chiefs' career rushing leader, Jamaal Charles will return to Kansas City for the first time as a member of the Broncos. He was released last offseason when the Chiefs needed to save salary-cap space and signed a one-year deal with Denver.

"It'll be great to be back where I started at," he said. "It'll be great to come back, but hearing the crowd will be different for me."

ERRORLESS ALEX: One reason Smith is having an MVP-caliber season has been his mistake-free play. He has thrown 15 touchdown passes without an interception and needs five more TD tosses to match the league record for most without a pick to start a season set by Peyton Manning in 2013.

"To be honest, there's no time to reflect," he said. "You're just coming off a loss and you're in the middle of the season and all that stuff means nothing at this point. That stuff's for after the season. Two in a row, we've got a long time to think about this and, hopefully, get back healthy."

SPEAKING OF QBS: Broncos coach Vance Joseph insisted Siemian remains his starter despite a series of poor performances.

But with Brock Osweiler up to speed and Paxton Lynch returning to practice for the first time since late-August, when he sprained his shoulder, the lease on Siemian could be short.

"He's still working through the injury," Joseph said of Lynch. "Brock's looked fine. Brock's very engaged, very smart and a great leader. He looked fine in practice."

GETTING HEALTHY: The Chiefs could be buoyed by the return of three starters this week. Right guard Laurent Duvernay-Tardif (knee injury), center Mitch Morse (foot injury) and cornerback Steven Nelson (concussion) were all at practice this week and could be on the field Monday night.

STRENGTH VS. STRENGTH: Might as well call it weakness versus weakness, too. The Chiefs have the NFL's top rushing offense while the Broncos have the league's second-best run defense, and Kansas City has the No. 3 overall offense while the Denver defense is ranked No. 1.

On the flip side, the Broncos have had trouble moving the ball, and the Chiefs' defense is ranked 29th in the league.

"We plan on taking care of the run game, because that's what their team thrives off of," Broncos linebacker Shane Ray said. "It's a division rivalry, so it's going to come down to who wins the fourth quarter."

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WHCostumes بازدید : 0 سه شنبه 23 آبان 1396 زمان : 13:33

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